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Human-centered ICT, Emotional Design, Smart Care

휴먼ICT융합학과 Human ICT [DEPARTMENT OF HUMAN ICT CONVERGENCE]

휴먼 ICT 융합학과는 인간 중심 ICT(모바일, 네트워크, 인간친화적 지능화)를 기반으로 하여, 스마트 라이프 문화이해, 디자인적 감성, 마케팅능력을 함양하여, 스마트 케어를 위한 감성인지 UI/UX의 새로운 가치를 창조해 내는 “휴메니어” (휴먼+엔지니어) 양성을 목표로 한다.



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What is mission of H-Lab., SKKU?
작성자 : 조준동 [ 조회수 : 518 ]
15-11-08 08:35
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Top 10 strategic technology

Top 10 strategic technology trends for 2015(Gartner) includes five topics such as

  1. Computing Everywhere: As mobile devices continue to proliferate, Gartner predicts an increased emphasis on serving the needs of the mobile user in diverse contexts and environments, as opposed to focusing on devices alone. “Increasingly, it’s the overall environment that needs to adapt to the requirements of the mobile user. It will also require increased attention to user experience design.”
  2. The Internet of Things (IoT): The ubiquity of user-oriented computing will continue to be mirrored in industrial and operational contexts. “This is central to digital business products and processes. Deep embedding of technology will create touch points for users everywhere and create the foundation for digital business,” stated Cearley.
  3. Advanced, Pervasive, Invisible Analytics deliver exactly the right information to the right person, at the right time.
  4. Context-Rich Systems: Ubiquitous embedded intelligence combined with pervasive analytics will drive the development of systems that are alert to their surroundings and able to respond appropriately.
  5. Smart Machines: Deep analytics applied to an understanding of context provide the preconditions for a world of smart machines. This foundation combines with advanced algorithms that allow systems to understand their environment, learn for themselves, and act autonomously.

Human-centered design process

  • This human-centered process helps people hear the needs of users and communities, create innovative approaches to meet these needs, and deliver solutions that work in specific cultural and economic contexts. Arens (dec. 1946) concentrates on designing an object to the “specifications” of the human system. He calls it “industrial humaneering.” Arens “humaneers” an object by giving it a color and contour which are relaxing to the eye, by giving it a texture and shape which are pleasing to the touch and inviting to the grasp, by muffling any noises which may jar on the ear, by eliminating any odors which may offend the nose. While some have touted science, technology, engineering and math (often shortened to “STEM”) as the foundations for a high-achieving country, John Maeda believes that true innovation requires an additional letter—an “A” for art and design. Since becoming president of the Rhode Island School of Design in 2008, Maeda has championed a “STEM to STEAM” movement in education and research.
  • Design thinking with the words like empathy, listening, and feeling are hallmarks of human-centered design. Also heterogeneity of multidiscipline requires convergence + harmony. Design thinking is generally considered the ability to combine empathy for the context of a problem, creativity in the generation of insights by combining art and technology , and rationality to harmonizing the heterogeneity , and fit solutions to the context.
  • Fogg's Behavior Model shows that three elements must converge at the same moment for a behavior to occur: Motivation, Ability, and Trigger. When a behavior does not occur, at least one of those three elements is missing. Using my Behavior Model (FBM) as a guide, designers can identify what stops people from performing behaviors that designers seek. For example, if users are not performing a target behavior, such as rating hotels on a travel web site, the FBM helps designers see what psychological element is lacking.
  • Value of Wearable User Experience: When the iPhone 5 went on sale users complained that it was too light. This was an odd objection. We prefer light products to heavy ones, especially devices we carry in our pockets. But think about how we metaphorically equate weight with importance, as in the idea weighed on my mind or his presentation was lightweight. It’s possible that Apple enthusiasts unconsciously equated the lightness of the iPhone 5 with unimportance, or cheapness, even though the technology was state-of-the-art. In fact, studies demonstrate that we judge objects (books, currencies) to be heavier when participants believe they are important versus unimportant. If embodied cognition studies how the body influences the mind, then perhaps it could help explain the appeal of a good design – how the texture, color, and even weight of an object influences judgment.     Even the countertops are flush. Steve Jobs designed products that were physically smooth knowing consumers would implicitly equate a smooth texture with seamless performance (i.e., the computer runs smoothly).

H-Project: Tri-vergence (Instinctive, Behavioral, Reflective)

  • Norman believes there are three levels how emotions are evoked and translated through design. The first being visceral, an instant subconscious judgments whether a person believes that a design looks good or not. Such as the example provided of a water bottle where people buy water bottles not for the water yet for the bottle so they are able to keep it and maybe show it on display. This can be controlled by colour such as red for danger or excitement, shape, different fonts or materials used. The second level being behavioural experience, which is all about feeling in control of a product that you are using. This is achieved by having an understanding of what is occurring and having the feeling that you are truly in power when handling the product. Such as being in control when driving a sports car around a bend. The last level is reflective, being the ‘inner-voice’ that we have no control over. The products we own and see on a daily basis attract reactions and attention from people. For instance purchasing an exclusive watch or car such as a hummer, which may not function as well as its cheaper counterparts although it will attract a lot of attention promoting the owner’s image and this is due to the fun and noticeable design. When you combine the way products are design in order to achieve these certain pattern of thoughts, we are able to have a clearer vision of how product design can be influenced by emotions.

At SKKU Human ICT Convergence, we use the 5D methodology in our research process which is one of the best and proven ways for user-centered design. This consists of five distinct steps: discover, define, design, develop, and deploy. It is effectively a business model that focuses on listening to the user, and deeply discovering user's needs. During discovery, we determine what we need to do to meet those wants and needs, then work together with the user to apply critical thinking, tools, services, and high-end technology to define, design, and develop a course of action to satisfy those wants and needs. The 5D methodology is as follows:

  • Discovery: During the initial phase of a project we conduct meetings, workshops, and webinars with the customer to accurately determine their needs and current situation. We discuss technology and marketing as well as roles and goals. Once we feel comfortable that we completely understand the tasks at hand, we move to define the scope of the project and agreement deliverable.
  • Define: During this stage we want to establish exactly what it is that you and your company are trying to accomplish. This involves discussing your wants, needs, marketing goals, budget, financial situation, and us becoming familiar with as many aspects of your company as possible. Simply put, the more we know, the more we can help you. Using the information you have provided us, we will develop a Scope of Work (SOW) which will detail and outline a solution that will satisfy your wants and needs. The specific parts we focus on during this step are:
    • Planning/Discovery
    • Project Planning
    • Requirements Definition
    • Conceptual System Design
  • Design: Once we have submitted the SOW to you and your company for review, we will wait for approval. Once the SOW has been approved, our design and development team will initiate the design process. This will focus on the specifications you have provided, the budget you’ve given us, and your business goals. The design process includes:
    • Prototyping
    • Functional Design
    • Technical Design
    • System Architecture
    • Training Plan
    • Test Plan
  • Develop: Once you have approved the final design, we will begin the development and building process. Remember, you do not always go through these steps at once. Oftentimes, problems and obstacles will be encountered, and we will have to go back and rework things so that everything works out the way you want. It is not uncommon to go through the define, design, develop, and deployment stages many times before the final product is where everyone desires.Also keep in mind that the development stage is normally the most time consuming stage. This is the stage where we will be tinkering with various facets of the initial design to ensure that it is not only visually pleasing, but also workable and that it is delivering a great experience to the end user. To put it simply, the design stage of the methodology is a very dynamic process and requires the most patience, but the resulting payoff is immense. Items that are focused on during the development stage are:
    • Application Coding
    • Testing/Quality Assurance
    • User Documentation
    • Program Documentation
    • Change Management
  • Deploy: Once everything has been designed and developed to the point where you, as the client, are satisfied with it, we will launch the product or service. It will essentially be “live” for anyone to use or visit at this point. We will then closely monitor any and all activities and make sure that no unexpected issues pop up. We will populate database tables with the latest versions of production data, and all internal and external client operations processes will be integrated and confirmed. There will also be client training available at the beginning of the deployment stage. Deploying the software is the most essential part of the methodology. Now that real people are using it and customers are logging in and engaging with your products and/or services, both parties will be able to get a much more accurate depiction of how your particular product or service is performing. Here we will make the necessary minor changes, then plan any additional improvements that will be needed down the road. The final steps of the deployment stage include:
    • Hardware/Software Installation
    • Data Conversion
    • User Training
    • Support Training
    • Post Implementation Review

5D-Design-Process

  1. Discover with embodied Cognitive Technology (cognitive science + Intellectual capacity):

    Embodied cognition, the idea that the mind is not only connected to the body but that the body influences the mind, is one of the more counter-intuitive ideas in cognitive science. George Lakoff and Rafeal Núñez explain: Cognitive science calls this entire philosophical worldview into serious question on empirical grounds… [the mind] arises from the nature of our brains, bodies, and bodily experiences. This is not just the innocuous and obvious claim that we need a body to reason; rather, it is the striking claim that the very structure of reason itself comes from the details of our embodiment. Thus, to understand reason we must understand the details of our visual system, our motor system, and the general mechanism of neural binding.
    Our cognition is not confined to our cortices, that is, our cognition is influenced, perhaps determined by, our experiences in the physical world. Why we understand warmth with affection; as infants and children the subjective judgment of affection almost always corresponded with the sensation of warmth. There are many other examples.
    • We equate up with control and down with being controlled because stronger people and objects tend to control us, and we understand anger metaphorically in terms of heat pressure and loss of physical control because when we are angry our physiology changes e.g., skin temperature increases, heart beat rises and physical control becomes more difficult.
    • Thinking about the future caused participants to lean slightly forward while thinking about the past caused participants to lean slightly backwards. Future is Ahead.
    • Squeezing a soft ball influenced subjects to perceive gender neutral faces as female while squeezing a hard ball influenced subjects to perceive gender neutral faces as male. Female is Soft.
    • Those who held heavier clipboards judged currencies to be more valuable and their opinions and leaders to be more important. Important is Heavy.
    • Subjects asked to think about a moral transgression like adultery or cheating on a test were more likely to request an antiseptic cloth after the experiment than those who had thought about good deeds. Morality is Purity.
    Emotional communication through wearable technology can strength social bonds and reconnect people in a way where emotions are not hidden anymore, but shown an tangible signals. Moreover, these signals can be transferred to other bodies in order to enhance the quality of communication over a long distance.
    Accordding to Merleau-Ponty (2005) the lived body which experiences he awareness of having a body cannot be separated from its own environment. Therefore, an enbodied interation can be extend these limits into a whole organism, which consists of all the artifacts that human bosy is contacted with. Today with wearable technologies it is possible to create an embodied interaction and trasmit this information onto physical dynamic displays and by means of this, to other bodies so as to regenerate social bonds.
  2. Define by bio/health-technology (enhancement of medical science and physical ability) :

    to increase adherence to rehabilitation and medical instructions, enable skills and exercise practice with feedback about performance, reduce the incidence and warn of impending post-acute medical complications, and improve self-care management of chronic conditions. Applications for everyday care in the community monitor the type, quantity and aspects of the quality of daily movements and physical activities, incorporate vital signs, blood oxygenation and energy cost, and cost-driven instrument assistive devices. These systems, such as our cognitive daily activity devices, collect, integrate, process, analyze, communicate, and present information so that individuals become engaged and empowered in their own health care to improve their quality of life and reduce burdens on caregivers. Physicians, nurses, therapists, other providers, and families can apply these technologies in hospital and community practices.
  3. Design with user-centered design technology (enhancement of design and emotional ability) :

    Wearables as they are affectionately called imply a different approach than traditional web or mobile UX design. Such difference implies designing for multiple devices or for other external devices that the wearable device will interact with. It is one of the most unique forms of user experience – one that combines web-based user experience with traditional user experience. One that goes beyond creating the physical product.
    The user-centered design technology goes through aethetic design with life style changes, the role of human body with the ergonomics, the wearability issue for a better approach in designing wearable devices, a succession of inspirations for new products and services because it brings people and their experiences together at the core point of an innovative approach.
  4. Deveop by Information Technology (Information and Computer) :

    Advances in informatio and computing technology are enabling the design of powerful home and mobile technologies that can monitor and augment (qualtize-self) daily activities of people with physical impairments, disabilities, chronic diseases and the accumulative impairments associated with aging. These technologies can serve as monitoring devices of health and activity, feedback reinforcement for risk factor management, and outcome measures for individual care and large clinical trials. By leveraging advances in sensing and monitoring technologies, wearable devices can deliver critical information to the wearer in real time (via Bluetooth, GPS, 3G, and Wi-Fi technologies), empowering the wearer to monitor conditions in real time.
  5. Deploy with Management Technology (Enhancement of analysis capability of market characteristics) :

    Knowledge mobilisation (KM) is an emerging field of inquiry that seeks to strengthen connections between research, policy and practice across sectors, disciplines and countries, attempting to harness the benefits of research for organisational and societal improvement. Challenges of KM between communities of researchers and practitioners have been of particular concern within healthcare research and policy, with a number of terms, such as knowledge utilisation, knowledge transfer, knowledge translation and knowledge exchange, used to describe the process of bridging the gap between research and practice. Health services research literature predominantly discusses research capacity building which is defined as `a process of individual and institutional development which leads to higher levels of skills and greater ability to perform useful research, with most commonly accepted outcomes including publications, conference presentations, successful grant applications and qualifications obtained. Research capacity building, due to an acknowledged gap between producers and users of research, may not necessarily directly translate into improved outcomes for health services and patient care unless supported by an appropriate context-specific strategy for KM.